Scientists ponder whether ice on Mars ever melted
( New York Times )

The apparent discovery of ice near Mars' north pole has scientists asking: Did the frozen water melt at some point in the planet's long history to create an environment friendly for life?

The Phoenix spacecraft exposed bright white crumbs at the bottom of a trench while digging near Mars' north pole earlier this week. The bits disappeared in new photos sent back on Thursday, convincing scientists that the magic act was evidence of ice that vaporized after being exposed to the sun.

Water is a prerequisite for life, but it's just one piece of the
equation. Scientists generally agree that organic carbon and an energy source like the sun are also considered necessary ingredients.

【 まずは準備運動 】

・ponder 熟考する
・trench 堀, 溝
・evidence 証拠、証言
・vaporize 蒸発する

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posted by K.Andoh | Comment(0) | 科学



Gay Unions Shed Light on Gender in Marriage
( New York Times )

For insights into healthy marriages, social scientists are looking in an unexpected place.

A growing body of evidence shows that same-sex couples have a great deal to teach everyone else about marriage and relationships. Most studies show surprisingly few differences between committed gay couples and committed straight couples, but the differences that do emerge have shed light on the kinds of conflicts that can endanger heterosexual relationships.

The findings offer hope that some of the most vexing problems are not necessarily entrenched in deep-rooted biological differences between men and women. And that, in turn, offers hope that the problems can be solved.

【 まずは準備運動 】

・gender (社会的な意味での)性
・insight 洞察(力)
・shed (涙・血を)流す、(光を)放つ
・conflict 闘争、矛盾
・vex いらいらさせる、悩ます
・entrench 塹壕をめぐらす、(習慣などを)確立する
・root 根づかせる
・in turn 順に、交代で、同様に

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posted by K.Andoh | Comment(0) | 科学



Exercise Your Brain, or Else You’ll ... Uh ...
( New York Times )

When David Bunnell, a magazine publisher who lives in Berkeley, Calif., went to a FedEx store to send a package a few years ago, he suddenly drew a blank as he was filling out the forms.

Mr. Bunnell is among tens of millions of baby boomers who are
encountering the signs, by turns amusing and disconcerting, that
accompany the decline of the brain’s acuity: a good friend’s name suddenly vanishing from memory; a frantic search for eyeglasses only to find them atop the head; milk taken from the refrigerator then put away in a cupboard.

【 まずは準備運動 】

・fill out 記入する、書き込む
・encounter 遭遇する
・disconcert まごつかせる, 当惑させる
・acuity (知覚力の)鋭敏さ
・atop 頂上に

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posted by K.Andoh | Comment(0) | 科学


赤ちゃんは男の子、女の子? 鍵はお母さんの食習慣に

Boy or Girl? The Answer May Depend on Mom’s Eating Habits
( New York Times )

How much a mother eats at the time of conception may influence whether she gives birth to a boy or a girl, a new report shows.

The report, from researchers at Oxford and the University of Exeter in England, is said to be the first evidence that a child’s sex is associated with a mother’s diet. Although sex is genetically determined by whether sperm from the father supplies an X or Y chromosome, it appears that a mother’s body can favor the successful development of a male or female embryo.

The study, published in the journal Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, shows a link between higher energy intake around the time of conception and the birth of sons. The difference is not huge, but it may be enough to help explain the falling birthrate of boys in industrialized countries, including the United States and Britain.

【 まずは準備運動 】

・conception 妊娠、概念
・influence 影響を与える
・evidence 証拠
・associate 連合させる
・genetically 遺伝学的に
・chromosome 染色体
・embryo 胚(芽)、胎児
・intake 取入れ(口)、摂取(量)

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posted by K.Andoh | Comment(0) | 科学



New Therapies Fight Phantom Noises of Tinnitus
( New York Times )

Modern life is loud. The jolting buzz of an alarm clock awakens the ears to a daily din of trucks idling, sirens blaring, televisions droning, computers pinging and phones ringing ― not to mention refrigerators humming and air-conditioners thrumming. But for the 12 million Americans who suffer from severe tinnitus, the phantom tones inside their head are louder than anything else.

Although there is no cure, researchers say they have never had a
better understanding of the cascade of physiological and psychological mechanisms responsible for tinnitus. As a result, new treatments under investigation ―some of them already on the market ― show promise in helping patients manage the ringing, pinging and hissing that otherwise drives them to distraction.

【 まずは準備運動 】

・tinnitus 耳鳴り
・jolt がたがたする、がたがた揺さぶる
・buzz (虫の)羽音 (humming)、(機械の)音
・din 騒音
・blare 鳴り響く
・thrum (弦楽器を)つまびく、こつこつたたく
・hiss しーっと言う
・distraction 気(注意)が散ること

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posted by K.Andoh | Comment(0) | 科学