2008年12月10日

マンモスの復活?


Bring Back the Woolly Mammoth ?
( New York Times )

A new research report suggests that scientists may be able to
recreate an extinct woolly mammoth from its long-frozen DNA. The most gung-ho scientists think it could be done in a decade or two for as little as $10 million. The deeper question is, should we try?

No one is quite sure why the woolly mammoths died out toward the end of the last ice age, some 10,000 years ago. Theories include warmer temperatures that gradually displaced the plants on which they fed, overhunting by primitive man, an accumulation of harmful genetic mutations, widespread disease, or an asteroid or comet colliding with Earth and disrupting the climate.

If scientists do bring back a few mammoths, we suspect our warming world won’t look any more hospitable than the one that did them in.


【 まずは準備運動 】

・feed (動物が)食べる、食物を与える
・primitive 初期の、原始の
・widespread 広まった、広がった
・asteroid 小遊星
・comet 彗星


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posted by K.Andoh | Comment(2) | TrackBack(0) | 科学

2008年10月15日

幼児言葉がお年寄りを傷つける


In‘Sweetie’ and ‘Dear,’a Hurt for the Elderly
( New York Times )

Professionals call it elderspeak, the sweetly belittling form of address that has always rankled older people: the doctor who talks to their child rather than to them about their health; the store clerk who assumes that an older person does not know how to work a computer, or needs to be addressed slowly or in a loud voice. Then there are those who address any elderly person as “dear.”

“People think they’re being nice,” said Elvira Nagle, 83, of
Dublin, Calif., “but when I hear it, it raises my hackles.”

Now studies are finding that the insults can have health consequences, especially if people mutely accept the attitudes behind them, said Becca Levy, an associate professor of epidemiology and psychology at Yale University, who studies the health effects of such messages on elderly people.


【 まずは準備運動 】

・rankle 悩ます, 苦しめる
・hackle (鶏・犬などの)首の回りの毛.
・epidemiology 疫学


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posted by K.Andoh | Comment(0) | 科学

2008年10月08日

日本人2人とアメリカ1人にノーベル物理学賞


Japanese duo, American win Nobel in physics
( Japan Times )

Two Japanese and an American have won the 2008 Nobel Prize for
discoveries in the world of subatomic physics, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences announced Tuesday.

Japan-born American Yoichiro Nambu of the University of Chicago won half of the prize for discovering the mechanism called spontaneous broken symmetry in subatomic physics.

In its citation, the academy said this "year's Nobel laureates in physics have presented theoretical insights that give us a deeper understanding of what happens far inside the tiniest building blocks of matter."


【 まずは準備運動 】

・royal 国王の、王家の
・prize 賞(金・品)
・spontaneous 自発的な、自然発露の
・citation 引用(文)、召喚(状)
・laureate 受賞者、名誉を受けた人
・insight 洞察(力)


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posted by K.Andoh | Comment(0) | 科学

2008年08月27日

危険を嗅ぎ分ける鼻


How the Nose Sniffs Danger in the Air
( New York Times )

The next time someone says, “I smell danger in the air,” that might literally be true ー and the odor might be coming from you.

At the tip of the noses of mammals, including humans, is a ball of nerve cells known as the Grueneberg ganglion, named after Hans
Grueneberg, the scientist who described the structure in mice in 1973.

All sorts of organisms, including plants, insects and mammals,
release “alarm pheromones” when they sense danger; the pheromones waft through the air to warn others. Very little is known about the alarm pheromones of mammals other than that they exist. Scientists have not identified the compounds; they do not know where in the body the pheromones are produced. Nonetheless, the Lausanne scientists could collect the pheromones by simply stressing mice and sucking up the air around them.


【 まずは準備運動 】

・sniff くんくん嗅ぐ
・mammal 哺乳動物.
・describe 記述する、描写する
・structure  構造、構成
・organism 有機体、生物;
・insect 昆虫
・compound 合成、混合(物)、化合物
・suck 吸う、吸込む


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posted by K.Andoh | Comment(0) | 科学

2008年07月02日

ガンのケータイ原因説、再び


Experts Revive Debate Over Cellphones and Cancer
( New York Times )

What do brain surgeons know about cellphone safety that the rest of us don’t?

Last week, three prominent neurosurgeons told the CNN interviewer
Larry King that they did not hold cellphones next to their ears.
“I think the safe practice,” said Dr. Keith Black, a surgeon at
Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles, “is to use an earpiece so you keep the microwave antenna away from your brain.”

That supposed link has been largely dismissed by many experts,
including the American Cancer Society. The theory that cellphones
cause brain tumors “defies credulity,” said Dr. Eugene Flamm,
chairman of neurosurgery at Montefiore Medical Center.

But researchers who have raised concerns say that just because
science can’t explain the mechanism doesn’t mean one doesn’t exist. Concerns have focused on the heat generated by cellphones and the fact that the radio frequencies are absorbed mostly by the head and neck. In recent studies that suggest a risk, the tumors tend to occur on the same side of the head where the patient typically holds the phone.


【 まずは準備運動 】

・prominent 突き出た、目立つ、顕著な
・practice 実施、実行、習慣,
・dismiss 去らせる、退ける
・tumor 腫瘍
・concern 関心、心配
・absorb 吸収する、併合する


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posted by K.Andoh | Comment(0) | 科学


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