2007年09月19日

「己の欲せざる所を」は遺伝子のしわざ?


Is ‘Do Unto Others’ Written Into Our Genes?
( New York Times )

Where do moral rules come from? From reason, some philosophers say. From God, say believers. Seldom considered is a source now being advocated by some biologists, that of evolution.

At first glance, natural selection and the survival of the fittest mayseem to reward only the most selfish values. But for animals that livein groups, selfishness must be strictly curbed or there will be no advantage to social living. Could the behaviors evolved by social animals to make societies work be the foundation from which human morality evolved?


【 まずは準備運動 】

・gene 遺伝子
・reason 理由、理性
・advocate 主張する、支持する
・evolution 進化(論)、動詞が evolve
・natural selection 自然淘汰
・survival of the fittest  適者生存
・reward 〜に報いる、褒美・報酬を与える
・curb 抑制する、阻止する


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posted by K.Andoh | Comment(0) | TrackBack(0) | 科学

2007年08月13日

ケニアの化石、人類進化の道筋を変える?


Fossils in Kenya Challenge Linear Evolution
( New York Times )

Two fossils found in Kenya have shaken the human family tree, possiblyrearranging major branches thought to be in a straight ancestral line to Homo sapiens.

Scientists who dated and analyzed the specimens ― a 1.44 million-year-old Homo habilis and a 1.55 million-year-old Homo erectus ― said their findings challenged the conventional view that these species evolved one after the other. Instead, they apparently lived side by side in eastern Africa for almost half a million years.


【 まずは準備運動 】

・fossil 化石
・linear (直)線の
・evolution 展開、進化(動詞が、evolve)
・rearrang 再整理[配列]する
・family tree 系図
・ancestral 祖先(伝来)の
・specimen 見本、標本
・conventional 慣習[因襲]的な
・instead 代りに、そうはしないで


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posted by K.Andoh | Comment(0) | TrackBack(0) | 科学

2007年07月09日

奇妙な生命を探せ


Scientists Urge a Search for Life Not as We Know It
( New York Times )

A panel of scientists convened by the country’s leading scientific advisory group says the hunt for extraterrestrial life should be greatly expanded to include what they call “weird life”: organisms that lack DNA or other molecules found in life as we know it.

“The committee’s investigation makes clear that life is possible in forms different from those on Earth,” the scientists conclude in their report, “The Limits of Organic Life in Planetary Systems,” published yesterday by the National Research Council.


【 まずは準備運動 】

・convene 招集[召喚]する
・extraterrestrial 地球外の
・expand 広げる[がる]
・include 含む、含める
・weird  不思議な、奇妙な
・organism 有機体、(微)生物
・molecule 分子
・investigation 調査、研究
・Planetary 惑星の
・Council 会議、評議会


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posted by K.Andoh | Comment(0) | TrackBack(0) | 科学

2007年06月25日

IQが高いのはお兄ちゃん


Study Says Eldest Children Have Higher I.Q.s
( New York Times )

The eldest children in families tend to develop slightly higher I.Q.s than their younger siblings, researchers are reporting, based on a large study that could effectively settle more than a half-century of scientific debate about the relationship between I.Q. and birth order.

The difference in I.Q. between siblings was a result of family
dynamics, not biological factors like changes in gestation caused by repeated pregnancies, the study found.


【 まずは準備運動 】

・tend to do〜 〜する傾向がある、しがちである
・I.Q.(intelligence quotient) 知能指数
・sibling 兄弟、姉妹
・effectively 有効に、実際上
・settle 据える、(しっかりと)置く、落ち着かせる[く]
・dynamics 力学、原動力
・biological 生物学(上)の
・gestation 懐胎(期間)
・pregnancy 妊娠


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posted by K.Andoh | Comment(0) | TrackBack(0) | 科学

2007年06月01日

DNA構造発見者のゲノム解読される


Genome of DNA Discoverer Is Deciphered
(New York Times)

The full genome of James D. Watson, who jointly discovered the
structure of DNA in 1953, has been deciphered, marking what some
scientists believe is the gateway to an impending era of personalized genomic medicine.


【 まずは準備運動 】

・genome ゲノム、染色体上の遺伝子が持つ情報
・DNA(deoxyribonucleic acid) デオキシリボ核酸
・decipher 解読[判読]する
・structure 構造、構成
・impending 差し迫った、今にも起りそうな
・era 紀元、時代
・medicine 医学、薬


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