2010年06月30日

チンパンジーもまた戦争をして領土を広げる


Chimps, Too, Wage War and Annex Rival Territory
( New York Times )

Every day, John Mitani or a colleague is up at sunrise to check on the action among the chimpanzees at Ngogo, in Uganda’s Kibale National Park. Most days the male chimps behave a lot like frat boys, making a lot of noise or beating each other up. But once every 10 to 14 days, they do something more adult and cooperative: they wage war.

A band of males, up to 20 or so, will assemble in single file and move to the edge of their territory. They fall into unusual silence as they penetrate deep into the area controlled by the neighboring group. They tensely scan the treetops and startle at every noise. “It’s quite clear that they are looking for individuals of the other community,” Dr. Mitani says.

The objective of the 10-year campaign was clearly to capture
territory, the researchers concluded. The Ngogo males could control more fruit trees, their females would have more to eat and so would reproduce faster, and the group would grow larger, stronger and more likely to survive. The chimps’ waging of war is thus “adaptive,” Dr. Mitani and his colleagues concluded, meaning that natural selection has wired the behavior into the chimps’ neural circuitry because it promotes their survival.


【 まずは準備運動 】

・penetrate 貫く、突き進む
・objective 目標、目的
・adaptive 適応性の(のある)
・neural 神経(系)の(neuron:神経細胞、ニューロン)
・circuitry 回路網(circuit:回路、サーキット)


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posted by K.Andoh | Comment(0) | TrackBack(0) | 科学

2010年06月28日

笑われた日本の監督が最後に笑う


Japan’s Coach, Once a Punch Line, Is Having the Last Chuckle
( New York Times )

Two months ago, a month ago, even two weeks ago, few wanted to listen to this severe man who is said to write poetry and contemplate retirement as a farmer.

He was Japan’s coach at the World Cup, but who could take Takeshi Okada seriously? Japan reach the semifinals? A team that had never won a tournament game away from home? Okada’s prediction of reaching the semifinals seemed foolish. He became a laughingstock.

And yet, Japan has surprisingly reached the second round, where it will face Paraguay on Tuesday in Pretoria. Japanese fans are no longer booing the team or calling for Okada to be fired. Instead, 40 percent of the nation is watching matches that begin at home in the middle of the night and end around sunrise.

“I thought if I targeted the title, the players wouldn’t get
serious,” Okada told reporters before the World Cup. “But if I targeted the quarterfinals, they wouldn’t get motivated.”


【 まずは準備運動 】

・contemplate じっくり考える、熟考する、じっと見つめる
・prediction 予言、予報
・laughingstock 物笑いの種
・boo (ブーと言って)野次る


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posted by K.Andoh | Comment(0) | TrackBack(0) | スポーツ

2010年06月26日

夕食に何が食べたいか・・・


If you talk to a man in a language he understands, that goes to his head. If you talk to him in his language, that goes to his heart.

相手の知っている言葉で話しかければ、それは相手の頭に届く。相手の持っている言葉で話しかければ、それは相手の心に届く。
(ネルソン・マンデラ)


Ask your child what he wants for dinner only if he's buying.

夕食に何が食べたいかを子供に聞くのは、向こうがおごってくれるときだけにせよ。
(フラン・レボウィッツ)

2010年06月24日

子供の敵は成長の糧?


Can an Enemy Be a Child’s Friend?
( New York Times )

In sixth grade they were unlikely friends, the good kid and the bad one, the girl who studied and the one who smoked in the alley. They hung out; they met for lunch. They even walked home from school together, one watching, awestruck, while the other ducked into drugstores to shoplift lip gloss, cigarettes, candy.

It couldn’t last. One morning in seventh grade, a nasty note
appeared on the tough girl’s locker ― and someone told her the writer was her cautious friend.

“I would never, ever have done that,” said the friend, Bonnie
Shapiro, 45, now a mother of two in Evanston, Ill., who works as a recruiter for a design agency. “But it didn’t matter.”

Brushing aside Bonnie’s denials, the tough girl told her she was in for it. Sure enough, after school “she and her friends were outside waiting for me, and I had no one, no gang, no one there to support me,” Ms. Shapiro recalled.


【 まずは準備運動 】

・alley 路地、裏通り
・duck ひょいとかがむ、身をかわす
・shoplift 万引きする
・cautious 用心深い、慎重な
・brush ブラシ、払い落とす


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posted by K.Andoh | Comment(0) | TrackBack(0) | 科学

2010年06月21日

南アフリカの夢はワールドカップを超えて


South Africa’s Hopes Extend Beyond Field
( New York Times )

The World Cup begins here on Friday with excitement at so elevated a level that even many of the unhappy are happy.

Tshepo Makwala, a laborer, has no job, no prospects, and, worst of all, no ticket to any of the 64 games. Still, it thrills him that soccer’s biggest event is for the first time taking place in Africa. “This isn’t one for the Guinness Book of Records; it’s for the Guinness Book of Miracles,” he said.

President Jacob Zuma has called the World Cup the “greatest
marketing opportunity of our time,” endorsing the view that the coming weeks will serve as an unforgettable advertisement for a business-friendly, competently run democracy. But there are always risks to inviting outsiders into one’s home, particularly if the place is prone to crime, labor strikes and mini-rebellions in the townships over the lack of street lights, piped water and toilets.

South Africa is deservedly notorious for crime, and officials have tried to allay the fears of foreign fans by deploying 41,000 police officers for World Cup security and opening 56 special courts to quickly try the accused.

More than 40 heads of state are expected to attend the tournament. The national police commissioner, Bheki Cele, said jokingly, “Our famous prayer is the Americans don’t make the second round.” Attendance by President Obama would complicate his life.


【 まずは準備運動 】

・competently 有能に(compete:競争する)
・rebellion 反乱,暴動(rebel:反抗する、反逆者)
・notorious 悪名高い
・allay (怒り・興奮などを)静める、和らげる
・deploy (部隊・兵力などを)展開する、配置する


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posted by K.Andoh | Comment(0) | TrackBack(0) | 国際


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